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Maintaining diversity in policy-oriented research (第88回日本社会学会大会 2015-09 報告申込、審査中)

Maintaining diversity in policy-oriented research: alternatives of work-life balance measures for gender equality in Japan

TANAKA Sigeto (田中 重人) Tohoku University

Abstract prepared for a poster session in the 88th Annual Meeting, Japan Sociological Society (2015-09-19..20 Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan)

This proposal is under review by the Japan Sociological Society. Result will be opened by late August.

(Below is a draft before submission, as by 2015-05-18. See http://www.sal.tohoku.ac.jp/~tsigeto/15x.html for the final version.)

1. Problem

Policy-oriented research often suffers from overconcentration on a narrow topic. For instance, research on gender equality in Japan has concentrated on the effects of work-life balance (WLB) measures on continuous regular employment of women in their childrearing stage. Although we have already compiled negative evidence indicating that there has been no increase in women's continuous regular employment despite expanding WLB measures [1], we are still spending a large amount of resources on WLB research. Overconcentration reduces diversity and the capacity of social sciences to make appropriate contributions to public issues.

This problem partly arises from a defect in the PDCA (plan-do-check-act) cycle model, which policy-oriented research is always based on implicitly. It offers no motivation to break the cycle. The cycle is merely a repetition of fine-tuning in a production process to achieve the given goal, as is naturally expected given that the root of PDCA was a product management system used in private companies [2]. There will thus be no chance to set another goal, to discover a new research topic, or to appeal to the public to overwrite the fundamental philosophy behind the policy.

2. Solution

I put forward a proposal for a new framework for policy-oriented research: "ideology-institution dynamics with causal modeling" (IIDCM), a framework upper-compatible with the PDCA cycle. Like the PDCA cycle, IIDCM assumes a cycle between consideration of ideology (what we perceive and think about the real world) and observation of social phenomena in the real world. In addition, IIDCM offers a schema to analyze ideology as a system of interdependent beliefs about how the real society is, how the ideal society should be, and what we should do according to the social status we occupy.


In the IIDCM framework, the researcher sets policy goals after consideration of interdependent beliefs constituting ideology. Different ideologies give different policy goals, as well as different concrete measures. The researcher should also consider existing normative beliefs in a specific social institution, which sometimes let people act against the given policy goal. These features of IIDCM let researchers have a bird's-eye view of the dynamics of ideology and institution and write diverging scenarios for possible future societies, taking into account whether the policy goals are achievable, what the feasible measures are, and how we can solve by-product problems.

3. Case studies

In this paper, I will introduce three issues for gender equality in Japan: negative evidence against WLB policies and how the focus of WLB research has recently shifted [3], debates on reforms of the divorce system and redefinition of core beliefs about "equity" between (ex-)spouses [4], and expected effects of universal child benefit and opposition by "traditionalists" [5]. I will locate the current state of these issues on the IIDCM framework, find normative constraints in legal/political discourses, and discuss what scenarios are probable in the future.

(See http://tsigeto.info/15x for details)

References

  1. Senda Y., 2015, Childbearing and careers of Japanese women born in the 1960s, Springer.
  2. Sokovic, M., D. Pavletic, and K. K. Pipan, 2010, "Quality improvement methodologies: PDCA cycle, RADAR matrix, DMAIC and DFSS", Journal of achievements in materials and manufacturing engineering, 43: 476-483.
  3. 山口一男, 2009,『ワークライフバランス: 実証と政策提言』日本経済新聞出版社.
  4. Tanaka S., 2013, "Gender gap in equivalent household income after divorce", Tanaka S. ed. A quantitative picture of contemporary Japanese families: tradition and modernity in the 21st century, Tohoku University Press, 321-350.
  5. 宮本太郎, 2013,「権力・承認・福祉社会」武川正吾編『シリーズ福祉社会学1』東京大学出版会, 217-227.

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Comment:

zwgejceyj@msn.com

シャネルのJ12 他に、ブルガリのウルトラネロも候補に挙がっていたのですけど、迷いに迷った挙句、ベル&ロスのファントムを選びました。
文化、民族などからインスパイアされ、シェアースピリットのコレクションに反映させている。
ISO(国際標準化機構)規格やJIS(日本工業規格)の定義では、国産ブランドの場合その規格に準拠したモデルのみ防水が「m」表記、その他は「BAR」「ATM」などの気圧表記となっています。
BR03が今ではベル&ロスを代表するモデルと言われています。
2005年には角型の「BR1」を発表し視認性や機能美からファッション業界に支持されました。
ベル&ロスが掲げる4つの基本原理とは「視認性」「機能性」「信頼性」「高精度」のこと。
時間を計測するという点ではクロノグラフと同じですが、視認性はベゼルがダントツ。
その為、実際より経過時間を短く表示するとダイバーの命に関わるため、反時計回りにしか回転しない仕組みになっています。
世界初の電池式時計としてスミソニアン博物館にも展示されているほどの逸品です。
ただし最大60分までのアバウトな経過時間しか分からないので、目的に応じて使い分けよう。
「ベンチュラ」は、発売から60年以上経過した現在でも変わらない魅力を放ち続けます。
浸水を許さない頑丈なケースが魅力的なダイバーズウォッチは、一般的に20気圧(200m)以上のモデルを指しています。
一般的に20気圧(200m)以上のモデルを「ダイバーズウォッチ」と定義していますが、特徴的なデザインなのでリーズナブルな”ダイバーズ風”から実際の潜水作業にも耐え得るモデルまであります。
もはや芸術作品。
フリマアプリ ラクマでは現在62点のベルアンドロスの商品が購入可能です。
潜水時間を計測する液晶グラフや、暗闇で腕を傾けると自動で発光するフルオートELバックライトなど、本格的なダイバーズ機能を備えています。
ダイバーズウォッチはその名の通り、水中での使用を想定して作られた高防水機能を備えた腕時計です。
管理人は、新しい時計を買うと、数日間は寝ている時も装着するのですけど、手首も疲れなかったです。
着けるひとを選ぶ腕時計。
独創的なコレクションで時計業界に革命をもたらすフランスブランド、ベル&ロス(Bell & Ross)。
そしてベル&ロスの腕時計というと、「スクエア」が有名。
ジップ・スティーブンソンはヴィンテージコレクター・ディーラーとして有名な人物。
2000年、代官山にショップをオープン。

ロレックス時計コピー https://www.yutee007.com/protype/list-180.html

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